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Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21. The Romans buried the nails probably for the sake of

A. saving them for future use.

B. keeping them from rusting.

C. letting them grow in value.

D. hiding them from the locals.

【21】D. hiding them from the locals 解析: 该题为细节题,问罗马人埋藏这些钉子是为了什么?题干可定位Why had the Romans buried a million nails? 答案是在它的下一句they didn’t want the local Caledonians getting their hands on 10 tons of weapon-grade iron他们不想让当地的喀里多尼亚人得到十吨武器级的铁,所以它的答案是不让当地人获得它们。

22. The example of early 17th century Virginians is used to

A. highlight the thriftiness of early American colonists.

B. illustrate the high status of blacksmiths in that period.

C. contrast the attitudes of different civilisations towards nails.

D. show the preciousness of nail-making technology at that time.

【22】D. show the preciousness of nail-making technology at that time.解析: 该题为例证题,问17世纪早期弗吉尼亚人的例子用来干什么?答案需寻找它的论点,定位于Later civilisations would value the skilled blacksmith’s labour in a nail even more than the raw material.后来的文明更加重视熟练的铁匠在钉子上的劳动,而不是原材料,所以它的答案同义替换句show the preciousness of nail-making technology at that time当时制造钉子的技术珍贵。

23. What played the major role in lowing the price of nails after the late 1700s?

A. Increased productivity.

B. Wider use of new energies.

C. Fiercer market competition.

D. Reduced cost of raw materials.

【23】A. Increased productivity. 解析: 该题为细节题,问18世纪末之后,什么在降低钉子价格方面发挥了主要作用? 题干可定位于The price of nails fell by 90%,答案在其下一句,尽管钉子价格下跌的部分原因是由于更便宜的铁和更便宜的能源,但大部分功劳都归功于钉子制造商,他们只是找到了更有效的方法将钢铁变成钉子,所以是提高的效率为正确答案。

24. It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that nails

A. have undergone many technological improvements.

B. have remained basically all the same since Roman times.

C. are less studied than other everyday products.

D. are one of the world’s most significant inventions.

【24】B. have remained basically all the same since Roman times. 解析: 该题为推理细节题,问从第五段能推测出钉子怎么了?文中Nails themselves have changed over the years, but Sichel studied them because they haven’t changed much. ……, but Roman nails are still clearly nails. 提到钉子没有发生变化,所以答案为自罗马时代以来基本保持不变。

25. Which of the following best summaries the last two paragraphs?

A. Cheap technologies bring about revolutionary change.

B. Technological innovation is integral to economic success.

C. Technology defines people’s understanding of the world.

D. Sophisticated technologies develop from small inventions.

【25】A. Cheap technologies bring about revolutionary change. 解析: 该题为推理题,问从最后两段中能推测出什么?此题需要找到概括出两段的重点,根据重点句it’s the cheap technologies that change the world便宜的技术改变世界 以及最后一段重点句中都有提到价格降低导致发展的内容,所以答案为廉价的技术带来革命性的变化。

Text 2

26. According to the first two paragraphs, alloparenting refers to the practice of

A. sharing childcare among community members.

B. assigning babies to specific adult caregivers.

C. teaching parenting skills to older children.

D. caring infants around by their parents.

【26】A. sharing childcare among community members.解析:该题为细节题,问根据前两段,异亲抚养指的是什么行为?此题定位文中内容显示博茨瓦纳的Kung,那里的每个孩子都由许多成年人照顾,以及四岁的Kung儿童会帮助照顾更小的孩子,所以异亲抚养指的是在社区成员之间分担托儿工作。

27. The scheme in Germany is mentioned to illustrate

A. an attempt to facilitate intergenerational communication.

B. an approach to intergrating alloparenting into western society.

C. the conventional parenting style in western culture.

D. the differences between western and African ways of living.

【27】B. an approach to intergrating alloparenting into western society. 解析:该题为例证题,答案定位于文中内容Dr Annie Swanepoel , a child psychiatrist , believes that there are ways to incorporate them into western life.有很多方法将其融于西方世界,所以答案是同义替换句B选项。

28. According to paragraph 4, the “intensive mothering narrative”

A. alleviates parenting pressure.

B. consolidates family relationships.

C. results in the child-centered family.

D. departs from the course of evolution.

【28】D. departs from the course of evolution. 解析:该题为细节题,定位句This abrupt shift to an "intensive mothering narrative "但是本句只写了坏处,不能直接锁定答案,而句中的this 这个指代词可知,还需定位前一句,前一句的核心内容the western nuclear family was a recent invention which block with evolutionary history(西方的核心家庭是近代的发明中断进化史),与departs from the course of evolution(与偏离进化过程)为同义替换。

29. What can be inferred about the nurseries in the UK

A. they tend to fall short of official requirements.

B. they have difficulty finding enough caregivers.

C. they ought to improve their carer-to-child ratio.

D. they should try to prevent parental depression.

【29】C. they ought to improve their carer-to-child ratio. 解析:该题为细节推理题,文中An infant born to a hunter- gatherer society could have more than ten caregivers -this contrasts starkly to nursery setting in the uk where regulation can for a ratio fone carer to four children aged two to three (一个出生在狩猎采集社会的婴儿可能有10个以上的照顾者——这与英国的托儿所环境形成鲜明对比,在英国,监管可以规定一个照顾者对4个2到3岁的孩子的比例)以及Chaudhary said that Britain should emplore the possibility that older siblings helping their parents" might also enhance their own social development"(英国应该考虑这样一种可能性,即哥哥姐姐帮助父母“也可能促进他们自己的社会发展”),所以应该应该提升他们照顾孩子的人比率。

30. What is the best tittle for the text?

A. Instructive teaching: a dilemma for anxious parents

B. For a happier family: learn from the hunter gatherers

C. Mixed age play group: a better choice for lonely children

D. Tracing the history of parenting: from Africa to Europe

【30】B. For a happier family: learn from the hunter gatherers。解析:该题为主旨题,需要注意每段的核心信息,文中从最开始就体现了异亲抚养的好处,中间加了一些例子佐证,而异亲抚养来源于hunter gatherer狩猎者,所以答案为B。

Text 3

31. learned about Rutkowski form Paragraph 1-2

A. He is enthusiastic about using AI models.

B. He is popular with users of an AI art generator.

C. He atiracts admiration from other illustractors.

D. He specializes in classical painting digitalization.

【31】B. He is popular with users of an AI art generator. 解析:该题为细节题,根据Rutkowski,Paragraph 1-2定位到第一段和第二段,第二段讲到Rutkowski创造了很多作品,最后一句讲到:他在文本到图像人工智能生成的新世界中突然走红。(And he’s become a sudden hit in the new world of text-to-image AI generation.),故此说明他很受AI艺术生成器用户的欢迎。

32. The problem with open·source-AI art generators is that they

A. lock flexibility in responding to prompts.

B. produce artworks in unpredictable styles.

C. Make unauthorized use of online images.

D. Correct user information without consent.

【32】C. Make unauthorized use of online images. 解析:该题为细节题,根据open source-AI art generators定位到第三段,第三段没有说明开源AI艺术生成器的问题,所以继续往下定位到第五段,第一句提到:但这些开源程序是通过从互联网上抓取图像来构建的,通常没有得到艺术家的许可和适当的归属。(But these open-source programs are built by scraping images from the internet, often without permission and proper attribution to artists.),即未经授权使用网上的图片。

33. After searching online, Rutkowski found

A. a unique way to reach audiences.

B. a new method to identify AI images.

C. AI-generated work bearing his name.

D. heated disputes regarding his copyright.

【33】C. AI-generated work bearing his name. 解析:该题为细节题,根据题文同序的原则和searching定位到第七段,第二句提到:然后,他(Rutkowski)试着搜索自己的名字,看看自己创作的一篇文章是否已经发表。网上搜索找到了附有他的名字但不是他的作品。(Then he tried searching for his name to see if a piece he had worked on had been published. The online search brought back work that had his name attached to it but wasn’t his. ),故此选择C:以他的名字命名的人工智能作品。

34. According to Ortiz AI companies are advised to .

A. compaign for new policies or regulation.

B. offer their services to public institutions.

C. Strengthen their relationships with AI users.

D. Adopt a different strategy for AI model training.

【34】C. Strengthen their relationships with AI users. 解析:该题为细节题,根据Ortiz定位到Ortiz的观点,他认为:“艺术家行业正在形成一个联盟,寻找解决或缓解这一问题的方法。该组织正处于动员的初期,可能涉及推动新的政策或法规。(The group is in its early days of mobilization, which could involve pushing for new policies or regulation. )。其中还未提及对于公司的建议,所以继续看下一段,下一段提到:Ortiz说,其中一个建议是,人工智能模型可以在公共领域的图像上进行训练,人工智能公司可以与博物馆和艺术家建立合作关系。(One suggestion is that AI models could be trained on images in the public domain, and AI companies could forge partnerships with museums and artists, Ortiz says. )。结合这两段的内容我们发现:Ortiz想要推动新的政策或者法规,在对AI公司建议上的体现为与博物馆和艺术家建立合作关系。博物馆和艺术家都可以视作AI公司的用户。因此建议AI公司加强与用户的关系。

35. mainly about .

A. Artists responses to AI art generation.

B. AI’s expended role in artistic creation.

C. Privacy issues in the application of AI.

D. Opposing views on AI development

【35】A. Artists responses to AI art generation. 解析:该题为主旨题。文章开头由Rutkowski引出话题艺术家已经人工智能艺术生成器。从第五段开始提及人工智能艺术生成器所存在的问题。最后一段中作者引用Ortiz的话进行了总结:“不仅仅是艺术家……摄影师、模特、男女演员、导演、摄影师都有。”“任何一种视觉专业人士现在都必须处理这个特殊的问题。”(“It’s not just artists … It’s photographers, models, actors and actresses, directors, cinematographers,” she says. “Any sort of visual professional is having to deal with this particular question right now.” )。虽然提到了不仅仅是艺术家,但是最后一段之前主要就艺术家和人工智能的关系进行探讨,故此选A。

Text 4

36. The Chesapeake Bay is described in Paragraph 1 as .

A. a valuable natural environment.

B. a controversial conservation area.

C. a place with commercial potential.

D. a headache for nearby communities.

【36】A. a valuable natural environment 解析: 该题为细节题,问,切萨皮克湾在第一段中被描述为什么,文中提到:浅滩为鸟类、鱼类、哺乳动物和蠕虫等数百种物种提供家园,同时储存洪水,过滤水中污染物,保护附近社区免受潜在破坏性风暴潮的影响("protecting nearby communities from potentially destructive storm surges.")所以切萨皮克湾是一个宝贵的自然环境。

37. The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in the Idaho case .

A. reinforces water pollution control.

B. weakens the EPA’s regulatory power.

C. will end conflicts among local residents.

D. may face opposition from mining operators.

【37】B. weakens the EPA’s regulatory power 解析: 该题为细节题,问,美国最高法院对爱达荷州一案的裁决,文中提到:这个案件的判决使美国环境保护署监管湿地和水道的权力大大减(" a ruling in an Idaho case that provides the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency far less authority to regulate wetlands and waterways")所以这个案件的判决削弱了EPA的监管权。

38. How does the author feel about the future of the Chesapeake Bay?

A. Worried.

B. Puzzled.

C. Relieved.

D. Encouraged.

【38】A. Worried 解析: 该题为态度题,问,作者对切萨皮克湾的未来有何看法,文中提到:好消息是有许多州的法律提供湿地保护,但这是一种非常短视的观点,特别是当涉及到切萨皮克湾时("the good news is that there are many state laws in place that provide wetlands protections. But that's a very shortsighted view, particularly when it comes to the Chesapeake Bay")所以作者对于切萨皮克湾的未来持有担忧的态度。

39. What can be inferred about the EPA’s involvement in the Chesapeake Bay Program?

A. It has restored the balance among neighboring jurisdictions.

B. It has triggered a radial reform in commercial fishers.

C. It has set a fine example of respecting state authorities.

D. It has ensured the coordination of protection efforts.

【39】D. It has ensured the coordination of protection efforts 解析: 该题为细节题,问,关于环保署参与切萨皮克湾计划,我们可以推断出什么,文中提到:因此,我们呼吁乔·拜登总统和国会根据《清洁水法》恢复环境保护局急需的权力,保护国家的湿地——同时保护我们的供水、水生物种、娱乐场所和防洪设施的安全("And so we would call on President Joe Biden and Congress to restore this much-needed EPA authority under the Clean Water Act and protect the nation's wetlands – and with them the safety of our water supply, aquatic species and recreational spaces as well as flood protections")所以确保了保护工作的协调。

40. The author holds that the state lawmakers should .

A. be cautious about the influence of land owners.

B. attach due importance to wetlands protections.

C. recognize the need to expand wildlife refuges.

D. improve the well-being of endangered species.

【40】B. attach due importance to wetlands protections 解析: 该题为细节题,问,作者认为,州立法者应该,文中提到:因此,因此,我们也呼吁从里士满到奥尔巴尼的州议员考虑审查他们自己的湿地保护,并亲眼看到其中涉及的巨大利益("so we would also call on state lawmakers from Richmond to Albany to consider reviewing their own wetlands protections and see for themselves the enormous stakes involved")所以要重视湿地的保护。

Part B

A.It is clear that the countries of origin have never been compensated for the stolen artifacts.

B.It is a flawed line of reasoning to argue against returning artifacts to their countries of origin.

C.Museum visitors can still learn as much from artifacts’ copies after the originals are returned.

D.Reproductions, even if perfectly made, cannot take the place of the authentic objects.

E.The real value of artifacts can only be recognized in their countries of origin rather than anywhere else.

F.Ways to get artifacts from other countries must be decent and lawful.

G.Concern over security is no excuse for refusing to return artifacts to their countries of origin.


Simply there are people in Nigeria who cannot travel to the Smithsonian Institution to see that part of their history and culture represented by the Benin Bronzes. These should be available to them as part of their cultural heritage and history and as a source of national pride. There is no good reason that these artifacts should be beyond the ordinary reach of the educational objectives or inspiration of the generations to which they were left. They serve no purpose in a museum in the United States or elsewhere except as curious objects. They cannot be compared to works of art produced for sale which can be passed from hand to hand and place to place by purchase.


We know very exact reproductions of artwork can be and are regularly produced. Perhaps museums and governments might explore some role for the use of nearly exact reproductions as a means of resolving issues relating to returning works of art and antiquities. The context of any exhibit is more important to me than whether the object being displayed is 2,000 years old or 2 months old. In many cases the experts have a hard time agreeing on what is the real object and what is a forgery. Again, the story an exhibit is trying to tell is what matters. The monetary value of the objects on display is a distant second place in importance.


When visiting the Baltimore Museum of Art, I came across a magnificent 15th-century Chinese sculpture. It inspired me to learn more about the culture that it represented. Artifacts in museums have the power to inspire, and perhaps spark that need to learn and understand the nature of their creators. Having said that,I do feel that whatever artifacts find their way to public museums should, in fact, be sanctioned as having been obtained on loan, legally purchased, or obtained by treaty. Stealing artifacts from other peoples' cultures is obscene; it robs not only the physical objects, but the dignity and spirit of their creators.


Ancient art that is displayed in foreign countries should be returned...


To those of you in the comments section, by all means, who are having strong feeling about artifacts being removed from cities in the US and Britain, I would ask you to consider...


段落中一开始就提到“尼日利亚有些人无法前往史密森尼学会(there are people in Nigeria who cannot travel to the Smithsonian Institution),去看看贝宁青铜器所代表的他们的一部分历史和文化”。史密森尼学会位于美国,即尼日利亚的人们在本国无法看到这种属于他们自己的文化,后面也提到“在美国或其他地方的博物馆里,它们除了作为奇珍异宝之外,没有任何用途(there are people in Nigeria who cannot travel to the Smithsonian Institution)”。这与选项所说的“文物的真正价值只能在其来源国得到承认,而不是在其他任何地方”相符,故选E。


段落中的reproductions为原词复现,段中虽然开始一直在说复制品可以做到几乎和真品一模一样,但是结尾处总结到“展览想要讲述的故事才是最重要的。展品的货币价值在重要性上远远排在第二位。”(the story an exhibit is trying to tell is what matters. The monetary value of the objects on display is a distant second place in importance),只有真品背后才有历史悠久的故事,选项“复制品,即使制作得再完美,也不能取代真品”与段落意思匹配,故选D。


段落中的having been obtained on loan, legally purchased, or obtained by treaty(通过租借、合法购买或通过条约获得)与选项中的decent and lawful(体面且合法的)意思相近,都是在表达获取文物应该通过合适的途径,而不是通过抢夺,故选F。

【44】G Concern over security is no excuse for refusing to return artifacts to their countries of origin.

【45】B It is a flawed line of reasoning to argue against returning artifacts to their countries of origin.

Part C

【46】They sometimes travel more than sixty miles to find food or water, and are very good at working out where other elephants are--even when they are out of sight.


它们有时要走 60多英里才能找到食物或水,而且非常善于找出其他大象的位置——即使它们在视线范围外。

【47】The researchers are convinced that the elephants always know precisely where they are in relation to all the resources they need, and can therefore take shortcuts, as well as following familiar routes.



【48】One possibility was that they merely used their eyes and tried out the plants they found, but that would probably result in a lot of wasted time and energy, not least because their eyesight is actually not very good.



【49】The volatile chemicals produced by plants can be carried a long way, and they are very characteristic: Each plant or tree has its own particular odor signature.



【50】The experiment showed that elephants may well use smell to identify patches of trees that are good to eat, and secondly to assess the quality of the trees within each patch.






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