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Section I Use of English


Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

There’s nothing more welcoming than a door opening for you. 1 , the need to be touched to open or close, automatic doors are essential in 2 disabled access to buildings, facilitating hygiene in required areas and helping provide general 3 to commercial buildings.

Self-sliding doors began to emerge as a commercial product in 1960 after being invented six years previously by Americans Dee Horton and Lew Hewitt. They started out as a novelty feature, but as their use has grown their benefits have extended within our technologically advanced world. Particularly useful in busy locations or during times of emergency, the doors act as crowd management by reducing the obstacles put in peoples’ way. They give us one less thing to tackle during daily life and the occasional quick escape.

As well as making access both in and out of buildings easier for people, the difference in the way many of these doors open helps reduce the total area occupied by them. Automatic doors often open to the side, with the panels sliding across one another. Replacing swing doors, these allow smaller buildings to maximise the usable space inside without the need to clear the way for a large, protruding door. There are many different types of automatic door, with each relying on specific signals to tell them when to open. Although these methods differ, the main principles remain the same.

Each automatic door system analyses the light, sound, weight or movement in their vicinity as a signal to open. Sensor types are chosen to complement the different environments they are needed in. 18 , a busy street might not 19 a motion-sensored door, as it would constantly be opening for passers-by. A pressure-sensitive mat would be more 20 to limit the surveyed area.

1. A. Through B. Despite C. Besides D. Without

2. A. revealing B. demanding C. improving D. tracing

3. A. experience B. convenience C. guidance D. reference

4. A. B. C. D.

5. A. B. C. D.

6. A. B. C. D.

7. A. B. C. D.

8. A. B. C. D.

9. A. B. C. D.

10. A. B. C. D.

11. A. B. C. D.

12. A. B. C. D.

13. A. B. C. D.

14. A. B. C. D.

15. A. B. C. D.

16. A. B. C. D.

17. A. B. C. D.

18. A. B. C. D. For example

19. A. B. C. D. suit

20. A. B. C. D. appropriate

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A


Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

Nearly 2,000 years ago, as the Romans began to pull out of Scotland, they left behind a curious treasure: 10 tons of nails, nearly a million of the things. The nail hoard was discovered in 1960 in a four-metre-deep pit covered by two metres of gravel.

Why had the Romans buried a million nails? The likely explanation is that the withdrawal was rushed, and they didn’t want the local Caledonians getting their hands on 10 tons of weapon-grade iron. The Romans buried the nails so deep that they would not be discovered for almost two millennia.

Later civilisations would value the skilled blacksmith’s labour in a nail even more than the raw material. As Roma Agrawal explains in her new delightful book Nuts and Bolts, early 17th-century Virginians would sometimes burn down their homes if they were planning to relocate. This was an attempt to recover the valuable nails, which could be reused after sifting the ashes. The idea that one might burn down an entire house just to reclaim the nails underlines how scarce, costly and valuable the simple-seeming technology was.

The price of nails fell by 90% between the late 1700s and mid-1900s, as economist Daniel Sichel points out in a research paper. According to Sichel, although the falling price of nails was driven partly by cheaper iron and cheaper energy, most of the credit goes to nail manufacturers who simply found more efficient ways to turn steel into nails.

Nails themselves have changed over the years, but Sichel studied them because they haven’t changed much. Roman lamps and Roman chariots are very different from LED strips and sports cars, but Roman nails are still clearly nails. It would be absurd to try to track the changing price of sports cars since 1695, but to ask the same question of nails makes perfect sense.

I make no apology for being obsessed by a particular feature of everyday objects: their price. I am an economist, after all. After writing two books about the history of inventions, one thing I’ve learnt is that while it is the enchantingly sophisticated technologies that get all the hype, it’s the cheap technologies that change the world.

The Gutenberg printing press transformed civilisation not by changing the nature of writing but by changing its cost — and it would have achieved little without a parallel collapse in the price of surfaces to write on, thanks to an often-overlooked technology called paper. Solar panels had a few niche uses until they became cheap; now they are transforming the global energy system.

21. The Romans buried the nails probably for the sake of

A. saving them for future use.

B. keeping them from rusting.

C. letting them grow in value.

D. hiding them from the locals.

22. The example of early 17th century Virginians is used to

A. highlight the thriftiness of early American colonists.

B. illustrate the high status of blacksmiths in that period.

C. contrast the attitudes of different civilisations towards nails.

D. show the preciousness of nail-making technology at that time.

23. What played the major role in lowing the price of nails after the late 1700s?

A. Increased productivity.

B. Wider use of new energies.

C. Fiercer market competition.

D. Reduced cost of raw materials.

24. It can be learned from Paragraph 5 that nails

A. have undergone many technological improvements.

B. have remained basically all the same since Roman times.

C. are less studied than other everyday products.

D. are one of the world’s most significant inventions.

25. Which of the following best summaries the last two paragraphs?

A. Cheap technologies bring about revolutionary change.

B. Technological innovation is integral to economic success.

C. Technology defines people’s understanding of the world.

D. Sophisticated technologies develop from small inventions.

Text 4

The miracle of the Chesapeake Bay lies not in its depths, but in the complexity of its natural construction, the interaction of fresh and saline waters moved by wind, tide and current; the mix of land and water where spots are sometimes dry, sometimes wet. The shallows provide homes for hundreds of species from birds and fish to mammals and worms while storing floodwaters, filtering pollutants from water, and protecting nearby communities from potentially destructive

storm surges.

All this was put at great risk late last month, when the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in an Idaho case that provides the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency far less authority to regulate wetlands and waterways. Specifically, a 5-4 conservative majority decided that wetlands protected by the EPA under its Clean Water Act authority must have a "continuous surface connection" to bodies of water. This narrowing of the regulatory scope (after more than a half-century of differing interpretation of "navigable waters" under Republican and Democratic

administrations alike) was a victory for builders, mining operators and other commercial interests often at odds with environmental rules. And it carries "significant repercussions for water quality and flood control throughout the United States," as even Trump-appointed Justice Brett Kavanaugh observed.

In Maryland, the good news is that there are many state laws in place that provide wetlands protections. But that's a very shortsighted view, particularly when it comes to the Chesapeake Bay. The reality is that water, and the pollutants that so often come with it, don't respect state boundaries. The Chesapeake draws from a 64,000-square-mile watershed that extends into Virginia, Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia, the District of Columbia and Delaware. Will those jurisdictions extend the same protections now denied under Sackett v. EPA? Perhaps some, but all? That seems unlikely. And so we would call on President Joe Biden and Congress to restore this much-needed EPA authority under the Clean Water Act and protect the nation's wetlands – and with them the safety of our water supply, aquatic species and recreational spaces as well as flood protections.

It is too easy, and misleading, to see such court rulings as merely standing up for the rights of land owners when the consequences can be so dire for their neighbors. And it's a reminder that the EPA's involvement in the Chesapeake Bay Program has long been crucial as the means to transcend the influence of deep-pocketed special interests in neighboring states. Pennsylvania farmers, to use one telling example, aren't thinking about next year's blue crab, oyster or rockfish

harvest in Maryland when they decide whether to spread animal waste on their Lackawanna County fields, yet the runoff into nearby creeks can have enormous impact downstream.

And so we would also call on state lawmakers from Richmond to Albany to consider reviewing their own wetlands protections and see for themselves the enormous stakes involved. We can't offer them a trip to the Chesapeake Bay model. It's been gone since the 1980s but perhaps a visit to Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge in Dorchester County where American bald eagles fly over tidal marshes so shallow you could not paddle a boat across them but teaming with aquatic life. It's worth the scenic drive.

36. The Chesapeake Bay is described in Paragraph 1 as.

A. a valuable natural environment.

B. a controversial conservation area.

C. a place with commercial potential.

D. a headache for nearby communities.

37. The U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling in the Idaho case.

A. reinforces water pollution control.

B. weakens the EPA’s regulatory power.

C. will end conflicts among local residents.

D. may face opposition from mining operators.

38. How does the author feel about the future of the Chesapeake Bay?

A. Worried.

B. Puzzled.

C. Relieved.

D. Encouraged.

39. What can be inferred about the EPA’s involvement in the Chesapeake Bay Program?

A. It has restored the balance among neighboring jurisdictions.

B. It has triggered a radial reform in commercial fishers.

C. It has set a fine example of respecting state authorities.

D. It has ensured the coordination of protection efforts.

40. The author holds that the state lawmakers should.

A. be cautious about the influence of land owners.

B. attach due importance to wetlands protections.

C. recongnize the need to expand wildlife refuges.

D. improve the wellbeing of endangered species.

Part B


The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For questions 41–45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A–H and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A, E, and H have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

A.It is clear that the countries of origin have never been compensated for the stolen artifacts.

B.It is a flawed line of reasoning to argue against returning artifacts to their countries of origin.

C.Museum visitors can still learn as much from artifacts’ copies after the originals are returned.

D.Reproductions, even if perfectly made, cannot take the place of the authentic objects.

E.The real value of artifacts can only be recognized in their countries of origin rather than anywhere else.

F.Ways to get artifacts from other countries must be decent and lawful.

G.Concern over security is no excuse for refusing to return artifacts to their countries of origin.

Part C


Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Write your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

The African savanna elephant, also known as the African bush elephant, is distributed across 37 African countries.

(46)They sometimes travel more than sixty miles to find food or water, and are very good at working out where other elephants are--even when they are out of sight.

(47)The researchers are convinced that the elephants always know precisely where they are in relation to all the resources they need, and can therefore take shortcuts, as well as following familiar routes.

(48)One possibility was that they merely used their eyes and tried out the plants they found, but that would probably result in a lot of wasted time and energy, not least because their eyesight is actually not very good.

(49)The volatile chemicals produced by plants can be carried a long way, and they are very characteristic: Each plant or tree has its own particular odor signature.

(50)The experiment showed that elephants may well use smell to identify patches of trees that are good to eat, and secondly to assess the quality of the trees within each patch.

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

Read the following email from an international student and write a reply.

Dear Li Ming,

I’ve got a class assignment to make an oral report on an ancient Chinese scientist, but I’m not sure how to prepare for it. Can you give me some advice? Thank you for your help.



Write your answer in about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Do not use your own name in your email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

Part B

52. Directions:

Write an essay based on the picture and the chart below. In your essay, you should

1) describe the picture and the chart briefly,

2) interpret the implied meaning, and

3) give your comments.

Write your answer in 160–200 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)




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